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Geography Science

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Geography, science that deals with the distribution and arrangement of all elements of the earth's surface. The word geography was adopted in the 200s bc by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes and means “earth description.” Geographic study encompasses the environment of the earth's surface and the relationship of humans to this environment, which includes both physical and cultural geographic features. Physical geographic features include the climate, land and water, and plant and animal life. Cultural geographic features include artificial entities, such as nations, settlements, lines of communication, transportation, buildings, and other modifications of the physical geographic environment. Geographers use economics, history, biology, geology, and mathematics in their studies.


Arthus-Bertrand, Yann, and Sophie Bessis. Earth From Above. Abrams, 1999. Spectacular photographic results of a five-year airborne odyssey across five continents and 60 countries.

Bergman, Edward F., and William H. Renwick. Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, 2001. A textbook introduction to human and physical geography.

Cassidy, John. Earthsearch: A Kid's Geography Museum in a Book. Klutz, 1994. Fifty educators put together this book, which includes hundreds of facts, charts, photos, and games for the younger reader.

Davis, Kenneth Charles. Don't Know Much About Geography. Avon, 1993. Geography basics for all ages.

Johnston, R. J., and others, eds. The Dictionary of Human Geography. 3rd ed. Blackwell, 1993. A basic reference.

Knowlton, Jack. Geography From A to Z: A Picture Glossary. HarperCollins, 1997. Geography terms defined for young readers.

Small, John, and others. A Modern Dictionary of Geography. 4th ed. Arnold, 2001. Reference work with detailed definitions and explanations of some 2,000 terms.

Baker, Daniel B., ed. Explorers and Discoverers of the World. Gale Research, 1993. Profiles of more than 300 explorers, from ancient times to the recent past.

Bohlander, Richard E., ed. World Explorers and Discoverers. Macmillan, 1991. Reprint Da Capo, 1998. Solid coverage of the explorers and others who supported exploration.

Bryan, C. D. B. The National Geographic Society: 100 Years of Adventure and Discovery. Abrams, 1987, 2001. Reviews the society's growth and its worldwide explorations; illustrated.

Driver, Felix. Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration and Empire. Blackwell, 1999. A look at the relationship between geographical knowledge, exploration, and the needs of empire.

Flowers, Sarah. The Age of Exploration. Gale, 1998. A special focus on Columbus, Da Gama, Drake, and Magellan.

The Oxford Atlas of Exploration. Oxford University Press, 1998. Illustrated chronicle of humanity's exploration of the unknown; covers all geographic regions.

Waldman, Carl, and Alan Wexler. Who Was Who in World Exploration. Replica, 1999. Over 800 explorers are covered in this illustrated reference guide.


Martin, Geoffrey J., Ph.D. Professor, Department of Geography, Southern Connecticut State University. Author and archivist.

Thompson, John H., M.A., Ph.D. Late Professor of Geography, Syracuse University. Editor, The Geography of New York State.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.

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