History, Rebellion and Unity
Paul Biya, Biya, volcanic lake, unitary state, Election observers
When Cameroon became independent, President Ahidjo’s government was faced with a rebellion incited by the Cameroonian People’s Union, a pro-Communist party. By 1963, however, the revolt had been suppressed, and Ahidjo soon established the authority of his regime. In 1966 the six major parties merged into the National Cameroonian Union, which was declared the only legal party in the country. In 1972 Ahidjo sponsored a national referendum that changed Cameroon from a federal to a unitary state, called the United Republic of Cameroon.
Reaffirmed in office in 1975 and again in 1980, President Ahidjo resigned unexpectedly in November 1982. He was succeeded in office by Paul Biya, the former prime minister. Relations between Biya and Ahidjo deteriorated, and in July 1983 Ahidjo (who had retained the leadership of the National Cameroonian Union) went into exile in France and gave up his party post, which Biya assumed. Biya won election to his first full term as president in January 1984. During the same month, the constitution was amended to abolish the office of prime minister and to change the country’s name to the Republic of Cameroon. Biya suppressed a coup attempt that April.
In late August 1986 an explosive discharge of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from Lake Nios, a volcanic lake near the Nigerian border, killed more than 1,700 people in the valleys below. International medical and economic aid was sent to the area.
Biya ran unopposed in the presidential election of April 1988, held a year ahead of schedule to coincide with legislative balloting. Facing rising popular discontent in the early 1990s, he began to implement political reforms. Biya won a 40 percent plurality in the nation’s first multiparty presidential election, held in October 1992. In November 1995 Cameroon became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Early in 1994 a border dispute arose between Nigeria and Cameroon after Nigerian troops invaded the petroleum-rich Bakassi Peninsula of Cameroon. The Nigerian government claims a 19th-century treaty makes Nigeria the rightful owner of the peninsula. The Cameroonian government filed a complaint with the International Court of Justice, and the two nations started negotiations in March. Short skirmishes sporadically broke out between January and May 1996 while each nation accused the other of being the aggressor. In late May both nations agreed to allow a UN fact-finding mission access to Bakassi to help settle the dispute.
Biya faced increasing opposition leading up to 1997 legislative and presidential elections. Legislative elections held that May were accompanied by violent confrontations between rival political groups. Biya’s party, the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (formerly the National Cameroonian Union), won 60 percent of the seats, but the vote was marred by allegations of electoral fraud. October presidential elections were boycotted by Cameroon’s three main opposition parties, and Biya was reelected in a landslide. Election observers estimated that voter participation was less than 30 percent in the presidential elections.
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