Mamoudzou, Dzaoudzi, causeways, subsistence farming, small holdings
In the 19th century Mayotte attracted Creole sugar planters from Reunion (another French-controlled island in the Indian Ocean). Since then the export of sugar has been replaced by a small export of ylang-ylang (the essence extracted from ylang-ylang flowers and used to make perfume), vanilla, and coffee, much of it grown and processed by landowners with small holdings. The economy of most of the people depends on subsistence farming, fishing, and on employment provided by the French administration and armed forces. France heavily subsidizes the economy, and the currency is the French franc. Imports are regularly ten times the value of exports. There are a number of hotels, but little tourism has developed.
Radio and television broadcasts are provided by the French Societe Nationale de Radio-Television Francaise d'Outre-Mer, which broadcasts to all the French overseas departments and territorial collectivities. A weekly Journal de Mayotte is published in Mamoudzou. The airport is located on the island of Pamanzi, which is connected by causeways to Dzaoudzi and to the main island. A ferry runs from Dzaoudzi to Mamoudzou, on the main island. Dzaoudzi and Mamoudzou have deepwater anchorages, but the approach through gaps in the reef is difficult.
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