Germanic invasions, Phoenicians, trading posts, Roman Empire, foreign invaders
The history of the region comprising present-day Morocco has been shaped by the interaction of the original Berber population and the various foreign peoples who successively invaded the country.
The first of the foreign invaders well known to history were the Phoenicians, who in the 12th century bc established trading posts on the Mediterranean coast of the region. These colonies were later taken over and extended by the Carthaginians. The conquest of Carthage by Rome, in the 2nd century bc, led to Roman dominance of the Mediterranean coast of Africa. About ad 42 the northern portion of what is now Morocco was incorporated into the Roman Empire as the province of Mauretania Tingitana. In the Germanic invasions that attended the decline of the Roman Empire, the Vandals in 429 occupied Mauretania Tingitana. The Byzantine general Belisarius defeated the Vandals in 533 and established Byzantine rule in parts of the country.
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