History, Abboud’s Rule
southern Sudan, martial law, Arab-Israeli War, revolt, civil war
The first general parliamentary elections after Sudan attained independence were held on February 27, 1958. The Umma Party won a majority and formed a new government on March 20. It was overthrown on November 17 by Lieutenant General Ibrahim Abboud, the commander in chief of the armed forces. Abboud, reputedly an advocate of closer relations with Egypt, dismissed parliament, suspended the constitution, declared martial law, and established a cabinet with himself as prime minister.
In November 1964, President Abboud resigned. He was replaced by a supreme council of state. A revolt in southern Sudan that had begun under Abboud against domination by the Arab north continued as a civil war until March 1972, when the south was granted some autonomy. A shift toward a pro-Arab foreign policy was evident after the Arab-Israeli War of 1967.
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