History, Sudanization and Independence
official beginning, southern Sudan, military posts, Arab League, social differences
In compliance with the provisions of the agreement, the first Sudanese parliamentary elections were held late in 1953. The pro-Egyptian National Unionist Party won a decisive victory. The first all-Sudanese government assumed office on January 9, 1954. Designated “Appointed Day,” the date marked the official beginning of the transitional period of “Sudanization,” a process of replacing all foreigners in responsible governmental and military posts by Sudanese.
The Sudanization program, which was completed in August 1955, accentuated the geographic and social differences between northern and southern Sudan. A mutiny of southern units of the Sudanese army broke out on August 19, and it was put down by government forces. On August 30 the parliament approved a measure stipulating that Sudan should determine its future status by means of a plebiscite. Meanwhile, the United Kingdom and Egypt agreed to withdraw their troops by November 12, 1955. On December 19 the Sudanese parliament, bypassing the projected plebiscite, declared Sudan an independent state.
The Republic of Sudan was formally established on January 1, 1956. Egypt and the United Kingdom immediately recognized the new nation. Sudan became a member of the Arab League on January 19 and of the United Nations on November 12.
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