Shipping Corporation of India, private airlines, National highways, economic reforms, Cochin
India has a network of railroad lines that covers the entire country. The network is the largest in Asia and one of the largest in the world. All railroad lines are publicly controlled. In 1999 the length of operated track was 62,759 km (38,997 mi). The system carried 3.9 billion passengers and 365 million metric tons of goods annually in the mid-1990s.
By 1999 there were 3.3 million km (2.1 million mi) of roads in India, of which 46 percent were paved. National highways make up about 2 percent of the total road length and carry about 40 percent of road traffic. Each state operates a publicly owned bus company. The major Indian ports, including Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin, and Vishakhapatnam, are served by cargo carriers and passenger liners operating to all parts of the world. To keep up with increased foreign trade, port facilities have been modernizing and expanding. India has a large merchant shipping fleet, about half of which is publicly owned under the Shipping Corporation of India. A comprehensive network of air routes connects the major cities and towns of the country. As part of the 1991 economic reforms, India opened up domestic air service to private airlines for competition with publicly owned Indian airlines, with a result of increasing air service.
Article key phrases: