Mahkamah Agung, Banjarmasin, Banda Aceh, Ambon, Palembang
The judiciary is made up of many district courts, several courts of appeals, and the Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung), which is the final court of appeal and sits in Jakarta. The Supreme Court was restructured in 1968 to conform with the 1945 constitution. It is made of 51 members, nominated by the DPR and appointed by the president. Appeals are heard by high courts located in 14 major cities: Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, Makassar, Banda Aceh, Padang, Palembang, Bandung, Semarang, Banjarmasin, Manado, Denpasar, Ambon, and Jayapura. Below the appellate courts are the district courts that try civil and criminal cases.
Criminal cases are tried under a unified code, but civil cases are tried under an uncodified, customary law known as adat. Under adat law, crimes against individuals are seen as crimes against the whole community. Westerners and Asians of foreign origin or ancestry are tried under a system based on continental European civil codes.
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