natural energy sources, hydroelectric plants, nuclear plants, metric tons, nuclear energy
Japan depends almost entirely on imports for oil, natural gas, and coal. Following the oil shocks of the 1970s, Japan developed effective ways of conserving energy. In 1994 its energy use per person was 3.5 metric tons, compared to 8.0 for the United States and 3.8 for Germany. Japan also moved away from using petroleum. As a source of energy, petroleum fell from 75 percent of total energy consumption in 1973 to 57 percent in the early 1990s. Although its natural energy sources are limited, Japan sustains a rapidly expanding industrial sector and a large populace with one of the highest standards of living in the world. To do this it has followed a policy of developing nuclear energy. Nuclear power generated from more than 50 nuclear plants provides 32 percent (1998) of the country’s energy.
In 1999 Japan consumed 947 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, amounting to 7,505 kilowatt-hours per person. Japan generates most of its electricity in thermal plants using coal or petroleum, nuclear power plants, and hydroelectric plants.
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