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Filipino Resistance to Colonial Rule, Filipino Reformists
Filibusterismo, Tangere, Solidaridad, Propaganda Movement, Jose Rizal
In 1872 the colonial government arrested hundreds of ilustrados and priests after an uprising by workers at the military fort of Cavite. Three Filipino priests were convicted of organizing the uprising and executed. This crackdown by the colonial authorities intensified the nationalist character of the reform movement. Filipino liberals who were sent into exile in Europe and ilustrados attending European universities formed the Propaganda Movement, using publications such as La Solidaridad (Solidarity) to call for social and political reform. The Filipino intellectuals Graciano Lopez Jaena, M. H. del Pilar, and Jose Rizal were the foremost leaders of the movement. Rizalís novels Noli Me Tangere (1886; Touch Me Not, translated 1961) and El Filibusterismo (1891; The Subversive, translated 1962) exposed to the world the injustices imposed on Filipinos under the colonial regime.
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