History, Chinese Settlement
Koxinga, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Sino-French War, Opium Wars, Sino-Japanese War
In 1644 the Manchus of northeastern China defeated the Ming dynasty and established the Qing dynasty. Meanwhile, a group of Ming followers led by Cheng Ch’eng-kung, known in the West as Koxinga, drove the Dutch from Taiwan and occupied the island’s southwestern portion. Cheng established a formal Chinese government, ruling Taiwan as a Ming enclave. It was not until 1683 that the island finally fell to Qing rule. Thereafter, immigration to Taiwan from mainland China increased greatly. As a result of Britain’s victory against China in the Opium Wars and the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1860, two ports on Taiwan’s western coast opened to foreign ships. Roman Catholic and Protestant missions were established on the island soon after.
During the Sino-French War of 1884 and 1885 the French imposed a partial blockade against Taiwan. The Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895 terminated the first Sino-Japanese War and required that China cede Taiwan and the P’enghu Islands to Japan. However, the Chinese inhabitants of Taiwan refused to submit and instigated a rebellion that was put down by the Japanese. For the next 50 years a stringent occupation and colonization followed, including a rigorous effort at Japanization—the attempt to replace Chinese culture and tradition with that of the Japanese.
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