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- Early Africans -

- Ancient Nile Valley States -

- Dawn of the Iron Age -

- Early North Africa -

- The Age of Empires in West Africa -

- Early East Africa -

- Early Central Africa -

- Early Southern Africa -

- North Africa to the 1870s -

- West Africa to the 1870s -

- East Africa to the 1870s -

- Central Africa to the 1870s -

- Southern Africa to the 1870s -

- The Scramble for Africa -

- Colonial Rule -

- The Winning of Independence -

- Africa into the 21st Century -

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At some point between 130,000 and 90,000 years ago the first true human beings, Homo sapiens, evolved in eastern and southern Africa. These Stone Age humans had the same capacity for thought as modern human beings. They were capable of making tools such as hooks and needles made of bone, and precise stone blades. These stone blades could be used as scrapers and hand-knives, or attached to poles and sticks for use as spears or arrows. By 90,000 years ago Homo sapiens had begun to move out of Africa into the Middle East, Europe, Central Asia, and beyond. All modern human beings are descended from these original African ancestors.

Shillington, Kevin, B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D.

Historian of Africa. Editor of "Encyclopedia of African History" and author of "History of Africa", "Independence in Africa", and other books.

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