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Early North Africa

- Roman Africa -

- Spread of Christianity -

- Trans-Saharan Trade -

- Islam and the Arab Conquest of North Africa -

- Egypt Under the Fatimids, Mamluks, and Ottomans -

- Almoravids and Almohads of Northwest Africa -

- Ottoman Maghreb and Morocco -

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The Greek conquest of Egypt in 332 bc tied Egypt more closely to the fortunes of the Mediterranean world. The new ruling class adapted many aspects of Egyptian culture, but Greek became the language of administration and trade. A new capital city was built at Alexandria, which, within a few centuries, became the greatest trading center of the ancient world. The Greeks founded the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, which persisted until the Roman Empire conquered Egypt in 31 bc.

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