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History, Coming of Islam

Dimashq, Ottoman Turks, caliphs, ijaz, founding of Islam

Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, was born in Mecca in 570. His teachings angered local residents and Muhammad left for Medina. In 630 he returned with his followers and conquered Mecca, setting into motion the rapid expansion of Islam across the Middle East. The founding of Islam in the 7th century altered profoundly the course of Saudi history. Muhammadís successors, known as caliphs, went on to conquer and convert the entire Middle East. As the caliphate was established, first in Damascus (Dimashq) in 660, and then in Baghdad, Muhammadís homeland itself became less important within the Islamic empire. After 1269 most of Al ?ijaz was under the nominal suzerainty of the Egyptian Mamluks. The Ottoman Turks gained control of the region when they conquered Egypt in 1517, but they were unable to extend their authority into the interior. During the 15th century the Saud dynasty was founded near modern-day Riyadh by Muhammad ibn Saud.

Article key phrases:

Dimashq, Ottoman Turks, caliphs, ijaz, founding of Islam, prophet of Islam, Islamic empire, Baghdad, Damascus, caliphate, Medina, teachings, followers, motion, century, authority, interior, control, region, local residents


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