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History, Wahhabi Ascendancy

Wahhabis, Saudi family, ijaz, Saudis, Asir

In the mid-18th century the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab formed his fundamentalist sect, and supported by Saudi armies the movement soon established a nationalist Arab state in the Najd. In 1802 the Wahhabis captured Mecca, and although they were expelled from the city in 1812, they were not defeated. The Wahhabis and Saudis retreated to Riyadh, where they founded their capital in 1824. From there the Saudis reconquered most of the land they had lost. After 1865 the dynasty fell into civil war and the kingdom was divided among various clans and the Ottomans. Defeated, the Saudi family fled into exile in Kuwait. In 1902, Abdul Aziz ibn Saud retook Riyadh and by 1906 his forces controlled the Najd region. He captured the region of Al A?sa’ in 1913, the Jebel Shammar in 1921, Mecca in 1924, Medina in 1925, and ‘Asir in 1926. He then proclaimed himself king of Al ?ijaz. In 1932, after unifying the conquered territories, he renamed his vast realm Saudi Arabia.

Article key phrases:

Wahhabis, Saudi family, ijaz, Saudis, Asir, Abdul Aziz, Mecca, exile, dynasty, civil war, Medina, Ottomans, Riyadh, Kuwait, forces, capital, century, movement, land, kingdom, city


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