Middle East, Turkey
Mustafa Kemal, secular state, military junta, southeastern Europe, Aegean Sea
Turkey (country), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish Turkiye Cumhuriyeti), country in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, bordered on the northwest by Bulgaria and Greece; on the north by the Black Sea; on the northeast by Georgia and Armenia; on the east by Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Naxc?van; on the south by Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean Sea; and on the west by the Aegean Sea. The total area of Turkey is 779,452 sq km (300,948 sq mi). The capital is Ankara; Istanbul is the largest city.
The modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal (later Ataturk) from a portion of the Ottoman Empire, following the empire’s collapse as a result of World War I (1914-1918). Turkey became a secular state in 1928, and a multiparty political system was established in 1950. Apart from a brief period of government by a military junta in 1960 and 1961, Turkey remained under civilian rule until 1980, when, in a period of political instability, inflation, and acts of terrorism, the military again took control. Civilian rule was restored to Turkey at the end of 1983.
>> Land and Resources
>> Education and Cultural Activity
Article key phrases: