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Decline and Traditional Reform, Some Gains and More Losses

Ahmed Pasha, Bonneval, European involvement, northern shores, Ottoman army

Even at this time, however, the Ottoman Empire had enough internal strength to pull itself together, correct the worse abuses, and, by adopting modern European weapons and tactics, even regain some of its losses. In 1711 the Ottomans defeated a campaign mounted by Tsar Peter the Great, forcing him to return the territories lost at Karlowitz, but a war with Venice and Austria (1714-1717) led to the loss of Belgrade and northern Serbia. This stimulated a new reform era called the Tulip Period (1715-1730), in which the Ottoman army was reorganized and modernized in order to spare the empire further losses. This effort was continued during the reign (1730-1754) of Mahmud I, when the French artillery officer Claude de Bonneval, called Humbarac? Ahmed Pasha, created a new European-style artillery corps. As a result, in the war that broke out with Russia and Austria (1736-1739), the Ottomans were able to regain most of their previous losses in northern Serbia and the northern shores of the Black Sea. A period of peace with Europe followed, largely because of European involvement in other wars; this lull, however, once again convinced the ruling class that the danger was past, and the old abuses and decay soon returned. Consequently, in two disastrous wars between 1768 and 1792, the Ottoman army crumbled, major new territorial losses were suffered, and the empire itself seemed near total collapse.

Article key phrases:

Ahmed Pasha, Bonneval, European involvement, northern shores, Ottoman army, Tsar Peter, Ottoman Empire, Mahmud, ruling class, Black Sea, decay, lull, reign, Venice, Ottomans, tactics, danger, Austria, Russia, result, campaign, territories, effort, time, order


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