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Era of Modern Reform, The Young Turk Years

Enver Pasha, Tanzimat, Adrianople, Progress party, Edirne

The early years of the Young Turk era (1908-1918) were the most democratic period of Ottoman history. The constitution and parliament were restored, and parties were formed to contest for leadership. The strongest among them was the Union and Progress party, founded and supported by the Young Turks, but many others also flourished.

The Young Turk reforms, which reached all areas of life, culminated in the secularization of the Muslim schools and courts and the introduction of women’s rights during World War I (1914-1918). The modern state apparatus of the Tanzimat was democratized, industry and agriculture were developed, and modern budgetary techniques were introduced. However, the First Balkan War in 1912 led to a revolt within the Committee of Union and Progress and an attempt to take over the government by a triumvirate led by Enver Pasha. The triumvirate’s domination was assured when it took advantage of dissension among the victorious Balkan states to regain Edirne (Adrianople) in the Second Balkan War in 1913.

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Article key phrases:

Enver Pasha, Tanzimat, Adrianople, Progress party, Edirne, Balkan War, Young Turks, secularization, Muslim schools, revolt, World War, parliament, constitution, early years, courts, attempt, Progress, agriculture, government, Union, leadership, parties, areas of life, industry


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