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History, The Trucial States

Khaymah, maritime power, internal affairs, rulers, winner

Trade with India and China expanded in the early Islamic period, with Julfar in present-day Ra’s al Khaymah as one of the leading ports. European intervention in the gulf began with the Portuguese in the early 16th century. From the mid-17th century the British and Dutch competed for domination, with Britain the winner in the late 18th century. By about 1800 the Qawasim, the ruling clans of Ash Shariqah and Ra’s al Khaymah today, had become a maritime power in the lower gulf, attacking ships from British-ruled India. The British defeated the Qawasim navy in 1819 and in 1820 imposed the first of several treaties that created and sustained a maritime truce, giving the name Trucial States to the states that now form the UAE. By 1892 the British had assumed responsibility for the states’ foreign relations and external security and they remained under British protection until 1971. The British, who were principally concerned with the security of Persian Gulf maritime commerce, rarely intervened in their internal affairs. The most significant results of British domination of the area were the establishment of general peace, the introduction of the Western concept of territorial states, and the creation in 1952 of the Trucial States Council to promote cooperation among the seven rulers. The council provided the basis for the Supreme Federal Council of the UAE.

Article key phrases:

Khaymah, maritime power, internal affairs, rulers, winner, treaties, Britain, ships, century, Dutch, UAE, creation, Portuguese, cooperation, China, basis, Trade, introduction, area, responsibility


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