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Education, Universities

University of Moncton, Acadia University, Universite Laval, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Simon Fraser University

Canada’s large universities were established in the 19th century, beginning with McGill University in 1821. Since World War II (1939-1945), higher education has expanded. Many new institutions have been founded, and the older universities have increased in size, scope, and influence. The federal and provincial governments fund the university system in Canada, including sectarian institutions, and students pay only a small portion of the cost. Universities are still the predominant institutions offering higher education, but the number of nonuniversity postsecondary institutions, particularly community colleges, has increased sharply in recent decades.

Nursing education, formerly concentrated at special schools attached to hospitals, has been transferred to universities and community colleges, which numbered 203 in the early 1990s. Similarly, teacher training has been shifted from specialized institutions to universities.

In the early 1990s Canada had 69 degree-granting universities and colleges, which together enrolled some 572,900 full-time students. Since then, one new university has been built in northern British Columbia, and a number of former community colleges are in the process of becoming universities. Among the country’s larger universities are the following: the University of Alberta (1906) and the University of Calgary (1945), in Alberta; the University of British Columbia (1908) and Simon Fraser University (1963), in British Columbia; the University of Manitoba (1877); the University of Moncton (1864) and the University of New Brunswick (1785), in New Brunswick; Memorial University of Newfoundland (1925); Acadia University (1838) and Dalhousie University (1818), in Nova Scotia; Carleton University (1942), McMaster University (1887), the University of Ottawa (1848), the University of Toronto (1827), the University of Waterloo (1957), and York University (1959), in Ontario; the University of Prince Edward Island (1969); Concordia University (1974), Universite Laval (1852), McGill University (1821), the Universite de Montreal (1876), and the University of Quebec (1968) in Quebec; and the University of Saskatchewan (1907).

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