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Social Development: North and South, Northern Blacks

Masonic lodges, freed slaves, social organizations, public schools, Baptist churches

As the North passed gradual emancipation laws, freed slaves moved toward cities. In 1820 African Americans made up about one-tenth of the populations of Philadelphia and New York City. They were excluded from white churches and public schools and, increasingly, from the skilled crafts, dock labor, and household service at which they had been employed. Attacks on individual blacks were routine, and occasionally, full-blown racist riots erupted—in Cincinnati in 1829 and in New York and Philadelphia in 1834, for instance. African Americans responded by building their own institutions: Methodist and Baptist churches, Masonic lodges, schools, charitable and social organizations, and newspapers. It was from within this web of institutions that they protected themselves and eventually demanded freedom for Southern slaves.



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Masonic lodges, freed slaves, social organizations, public schools, Baptist churches, Cincinnati, African Americans, newspapers, Attacks, New York City, cities, freedom, routine, instance, North

 
 

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