Culture, Theater and Film
Vidas Secas, Graciliano Ramos, Glauber Rocha, cinema novo, Nelson Rodrigues
Theater was not an important art form in Brazil until the 1940s, when playwrights such as Nelson Rodrigues and Alfredo Dias Gomes began to contribute more original works. In the 1950s the theater became more experimental and socially concerned, and the Teatro de Arena in Sao Paulo became an important place of innovation and a center of social protest against the military regime in the 1960s.
Interest in cinema has a long history, but motion-picture production was constrained by the limited market for films in Portuguese. However, the cinema novo (new cinema) movement of the mid-1950s began to attract international attention through films such as Vidas Secas (Barren Lives, 1963), a dramatization of the novel by Graciliano Ramos. A major figure was Glauber Rocha, who made several striking films on Brazilian themes, most notably Deus e o diabo na terra do sol (Black God, White Devil, 1964). More recently, Bruno Barreto has produced films based on several novels by Brazilian writer Jorge Amado. In recent years, rising costs and competition from television have posed challenges for the film industry.
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