History, Revolts for Independence
Peruvian independence, patriot Jose, peninsulares, Ayacucho, Spanish forces
In 1780 a force of 60,000 Native Americans revolted against Spanish rule under the leadership of Peruvian patriot Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, who adopted the name of an ancestor, the Inca Tupac Amaru. Although initially successful, the uprising was crushed in 1781. The Spanish tortured and executed Condorcanqui and thousands of his fellow revolutionaries. The Spanish suppressed another revolt in 1814.
Subsequently, however, opposition to imperial rule grew throughout Spanish South America. The opposition was led largely by Creoles, people of Spanish descent born in South America. Creoles grew to resent the fact that the Spanish government awarded all important government positions in the colonies to Spaniards born in Spain, who were called peninsulares.
Freedom from Spanish rule, however, was imported to Peru by outsiders. In September 1820 Argentine soldier and patriot Jose de San Martin, who had defeated the Spanish forces in Chile, landed an invasion army at the seaport of Pisco, Peru. On July 12, 1821, San Martinís forces entered Lima, which had been abandoned by Spanish troops. Peruvian independence was proclaimed formally on July 28, 1821. The struggle against the Spanish was continued later by Venezuelan revolutionary hero Simon Bolivar, who entered Peru with his armies in 1822. In 1824, in the battles of Junin on August 6 and of Ayacucho on December 9, Bolivarís forces routed the Spanish.
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