Culture, Art and Architecture
Pancho Fierro, Jose Sabogal, Cuzco school, Luis Montero, deep sympathy
Native American themes are strong in painting. During the colonial period the Cuzco school was famous throughout Spanish America for its religious canvases. During the 19th century there were four major artists—Francisco Lazo, forerunner of the indigenous school of painting and a portrait painter; Luis Montero, known for his huge canvas Atahualpa’s Funeral (1867); Pancho Fierro, a caricaturist of popular social types and customs; and Carlos Becaflor, a portrait painter.
In the 1930s, following the lead of the great Mexican muralists, a Peruvian movement—led by Jose Sabogal and Julia Codesido—reflected deep sympathy for the indigenous Peruvian people. Later, a reaction against the use of native themes took place. In the 1950s abstract painting became dominant. The Institute of Contemporary Art encourages new movements in art, while the long-established National School of Fine Arts is more conservative.
In addition to the many monumental Inca ruins, many examples of colonial architecture survive, particularly religious and public buildings located mostly in Lima, Arequipa, Cuzco, and Trujillo. In the Andean area the Spaniards often built on top of Inca remains, and in Cuzco one can see both types of construction. In colonial buildings, Spanish and indigenous modes often fuse, blending into what was called the Creole style. Moorish influence, which traveled from Arab North Africa to Spain and then to the Americas, is visible in what is known as the Mudejar style. Lima has many examples of fine modern architecture.
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