mandolin-like instrument, charango, huayno, conch shells, panpipes
The pentatonic scale used by the ancient peoples still survives, and pre-Columbian instruments such as the reed quena or flute, the antara or panpipes, conch shells, the ocarina, and various primitive percussion devices are widely used today. The Spaniards brought stringed instruments. The violin, the harp, the guitar, and the charango, a mandolin-like instrument, are very popular. Among the most popular folksongs and dances are the yarivi, a love song; the huayno, a rapid dance of the highlands; the cashua, a circle dance; and the marinera or zamacueca.
Lima has a national conservatory and a symphony orchestra, the latter organized in 1938 by Austrian-born Theo Buchwald. The orchestra encourages Peruvian composers by performing their compositions. The most distinguished 20th-century Peruvian composer is the Paris-born Andre Sas, who founded a music school in Lima in 1929. His compositions reflect the influence of native music. Sas was also an authority on folk music.
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